With membrane science, you have both physicists and chemists: the physics covering the likes of film theory, hydraulic resistance and molecular dynamics, and the chemistry for chemical/biochemical stoichiometry, organic polymer synthesis and Gibbs–Donnan equilibria. Oh yes, membrane science is pretty hard core.
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Wastewater treatment offers a few elegant examples of the useful combination of two unit processes. This includes the MLE (Modified Ludzak Ettinger) process for nutrient removal, as well as combined screening and degritting for protecting downstream processes from rags and abrasive particles. But it also appears that this extends to reducing energy consumption using the new-ish technology of forward osmosis - heralded as the future of desalination.
Stephen Katz et al.'s recent article 'The disinfection capability of MBRs: credit where credit’s due' raises a few rather intriguing questions concerning the measurement of the disinfection capability of an MBR and, for that matter, any other water and wastewater treatment technology.
Reclamation of water for non-potable use (and, in some parts of the world, potable water supply) is very well established. This is one of the key applications of MBRs, often upstream of UV irradiation, activated carbon adsorption and/or reverse osmosis.
Many marketing managers measure success by the number of clicks their advert receives, directing traffic to the advertiser’s website. This is important, obviously, but it’s also a fairly simplistic measure for a niche website like The MBR Site: it’s not like buying a self-help e-book or a smart phone accessory. The value of adverts is in brand awareness and that's why we present our adverts on every single web page – all 400+ of them.