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The disinfection capability of MBRs: credit where credit’s due

Disinfection by MBRs. Unlike regular physical membrane filtration, virus removal by MBRs is not limited to simple size exclusion. Adsorption onto the sludge solids and the membrane cake layer (as well as the membrane itself) represent important removal mechanisms, as well as removal by predation (the feeding on the pathogens by other higher organisms).

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Membrane operation | Process biology | Water quality and treatability

How advanced CFD modelling accelerates and improves the design and scale-up of membrane applications

Advanced CFD is increasingly used by technology developers and end users to optimise, design and scale-up their technologies. 3D computer simulation can reduce, replace or complement real-life testing. In MBR applications, the value lies in OpEx minimisation, footprint reduction, fouling control, optimisation of performance and the reduction of real-life experimenting and testing.

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Feasibility, optimisation and costs

Designing and managing wastewater treatment plants using CAE software − the LynxASM1 modelling and simulation tool

Ever more versatile and sophisticated options for designing and managing plants are being developed. And as the new CAE tools become more accessible and widespread, suppliers continue to develop and refine the tools, so the reliability of their predictions increases – promoting further take-up.

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Process biology | Feasibility, optimisation and costs | Pre-treatment and post-treatment | Water quality and treatability

Cost comparison of full-scale water reclamation technologies with an emphasis on membrane bioreactors

The authors consider cost information from installations across Spain, and compare this with corresponding information for the more conventional activated sludge (CAS) technologies. The CAPEX and OPEX − capital and operating expenditure − information was used to generate cost curves as a function of flow capacity or population equivalent (p.e.) for both technology types.

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Feasibility, optimisation and costs