When MBR sludge goes bad

Fouling in MBRs arises when materials either form a layer on the surface of the membrane or plug its pores. Studies are, however, generally unable to distinguish between coating of the membrane surface and phenomena relating to the agglomeration of solids. The latter has received little or no attention from the scientific community, and yet such irreversible deposition of solids clearly impairs MBR operation.

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Membrane operation