Municipal wastewater usually contains between 4 and 12 mg/L total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the range 4−12 mg/L. A conventional activated sludge process (CAS) can take this down to 2−4 mg/L, or 0.5−1 mg/L if an enhanced biological phosphorus removal (BPR) process is used. To achieve the levels required to suppress eutrophication, however, demands P levels of 0.01−0.3 mg/L
Features - Water quality and treatability
There has been a recent surge of interest in anaerobic MBRs. The technology provides the potential for removing COD with a net energy benefit from the methane generated, albeit without nutrient removal. Interest within academia is evidenced by the publication of five independent reviews of the subject in various learned journals in 2012 alone.
In Japan, there are over 3,000 MBRs which have been in operation since the 1980s for small-scale on-site industrial/household wastewater treatment. However, municipal wastewater applications began only in the mid 00’s, leading to 19 operational full-scale plants by April 2013.
Trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) in municipal wastewater consist of a wide range of naturally occurring and synthetic chemicals (Luo et al., 2014). They include industrial chemicals, chemicals used in households, chemicals excreted by people, and chemicals formed during wastewater and drinking-water treatment processes.
Aquaculture is the fastest growing agriculture worldwide, supplying a substantial amount of seafood consumed today. The ‘recirculating aquaculture system’ (RAS) is an upcoming production system in intensive fish production, where over 90% of the water is recycled for production of live feed, larvae and fry and on-growing fish.