Features - Water quality and treatability

Effects of ferric and ferrous iron addition on membrane bioreactor effluent quality

Municipal wastewater usually contains between 4 and 12 mg/L total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the range 4−12 mg/L. A conventional activated sludge process (CAS) can take this down to 2−4 mg/L, or 0.5−1 mg/L if an enhanced biological phosphorus removal (BPR) process is used. To achieve the levels required to suppress eutrophication, however, demands P levels of 0.01−0.3 mg/L

view feature

Pre-treatment and post-treatment | Water quality and treatability

Immersed anaerobic MBRs: are they viable?

There has been a recent surge of interest in anaerobic MBRs. The technology provides the potential for removing COD with a net energy benefit from the methane generated, albeit without nutrient removal. Interest within academia is evidenced by the publication of five independent reviews of the subject in various learned journals in 2012 alone.

view feature

Feasibility, optimisation and costs | Water quality and treatability | Alternative membrane technologies and applications