Disinfection by MBRs. Unlike regular physical membrane filtration, virus removal by MBRs is not limited to simple size exclusion. Adsorption onto the sludge solids and the membrane cake layer (as well as the membrane itself) represent important removal mechanisms, as well as removal by predation (the feeding on the pathogens by other higher organisms).
Features - Water quality and treatability
A feature of the MBR market over the past decade is the surge in the number of very large (≥100 MLD, or megalitres/day) installations, particularly in China. Of the 55 known global installations of greater than 100 MLD capacity, 39 are in China. The Chinese plants account for 74% of the total capacity of this group.
Designing and managing wastewater treatment plants using CAE software − the LynxASM1 modelling and simulation tool
Ever more versatile and sophisticated options for designing and managing plants are being developed. And as the new CAE tools become more accessible and widespread, suppliers continue to develop and refine the tools, so the reliability of their predictions increases – promoting further take-up.
Reuse of dairy wastewater treated by membrane bioreactor and nanofiltration: technical and economic feasibility
A study carried out by Andrade and co-authors assessed the viability of a two-stage membrane bioreactor−nanofiltration scheme (MBR−NF) for treating dairy wastewater. Of key concern was the quality of the treated water with respect to its potential reuse and the overall cost of the scheme.
China features many of the largest municipal wastewater MBRs in the world. Apart from their capacity, some also are ambitious in their construction. The below-ground installation at Kunming City, commissioned in 2012, is one such example. At an ADF (average daily flow) capacity of 150,000 m3/d and a peak daily flow of 195,000 m3/d, it is a substantial plant.
In membrane separation systems, it is probably shear which is the most significant parameter for driving the membrane process. Pressure is obviously important for forcing the water through the membrane but shear is arguably the property of the system which largely determines the rate of membrane fouling and so, ultimately, the flux.