Changes to the design and operation of MBR membrane modules have led to improved energy efficiency − but energy consumption is the most significant cost and contributor to environmental impact during MBR operation. The case study plant at Kaarst-Nordkanal highlights the impact of on-site installation of an AD process on the key parameters of energy consumption and the associated greenhouse gas emissions.
Features - Feasibility, optimisation and costs
It is most often assumed that the main cost associated with operating a membrane separation plant relates to the energy consumption, followed by the membrane replacement. Consequently, considerable efforts have been devoted to fouling control and mitigation, with more than one fifth of all MBR research literature publications devoted to this topic (Judd, 2017).
How advanced CFD modelling accelerates and improves the design and scale-up of membrane applications
Advanced CFD is increasingly used by technology developers and end users to optimise, design and scale-up their technologies. 3D computer simulation can reduce, replace or complement real-life testing. In MBR applications, the value lies in OpEx minimisation, footprint reduction, fouling control, optimisation of performance and the reduction of real-life experimenting and testing.
A feature of the MBR market over the past decade is the surge in the number of very large (≥100 MLD, or megalitres/day) installations, particularly in China. Of the 55 known global installations of greater than 100 MLD capacity, 39 are in China. The Chinese plants account for 74% of the total capacity of this group.
Designing and managing wastewater treatment plants using CAE software − the LynxASM1 modelling and simulation tool
Ever more versatile and sophisticated options for designing and managing plants are being developed. And as the new CAE tools become more accessible and widespread, suppliers continue to develop and refine the tools, so the reliability of their predictions increases – promoting further take-up.
Cost comparison of full-scale water reclamation technologies with an emphasis on membrane bioreactors
The authors consider cost information from installations across Spain, and compare this with corresponding information for the more conventional activated sludge (CAS) technologies. The CAPEX and OPEX − capital and operating expenditure − information was used to generate cost curves as a function of flow capacity or population equivalent (p.e.) for both technology types.