• The impact of biofouling on surface membrane properties in MBRs

    1. Biofouling and its analysis As with other membrane separation processes, MBR membranes are prone to fouling generally and biofouling in particular by organic matter originating from the microbial cells. These biofoulants vary in concentration ... Read more

  • A comparative techno-economic-environmental assessment of full-scale CAS vs MBR technologies

    1 Introduction Although a number of studies have compared the MBR system performance with that of the conventional activated sludge (CAS) process in treating municipal wastewater, none have attempted a simultaneous comparison of their environmental, techno-economic ... Read more

  • Reducing process aeration energy consumption in MBRs

    It is known that MBRs use more energy compared with classical activated sludge (CAS) because the aeration requirements are greater. Aeration is needed both for the biological and membrane tanks for degrading the organics and scouring the membrane respectively. Typically, aeration energy consumption accounts for 70–80% of total energy used for the municipal wastewater treatment process, with 40–60% consumed by the process biology. Clearly, using less air can go some way towards reducing the operating costs. ... Read more

  • Reuse of dairy wastewater treated by membrane bioreactor and nanofiltration: technical and economic feasibility

    Introduction The dairy industry has great importance in both the national Brazilian and global economy. Brazil is the sixth largest milk producer worldwide and has the potential to become one of the largest exporters of ... Read more

  • Kunming Underground MBR: a Chinese case study

    China features many of the largest municipal wastewater MBRs in the world. Apart from their capacity, some also are ambitious in their construction. The installation at Kunming City, commissioned in 2012, is one such example. At an ADF (average daily flow) capacity of 150,000 m3/d and a peak loading factor of 1.3 (and hence a peak daily flow, or PDF, of 195,000 m3/d), it is a substantial plant. It is also constructed below ground, in compliance with the urban planning of the city, and provides a non-potable reuse water flow of 45,000 m3/d. ... Read more

  • MBR OPEX – the theory of running costs

    1   The operating expenditure (OPEX) of an MBR One of the concerns of MBRs is their operational costs, which even the most optimistic (but nonetheless realistic) of cost analyses reveals to be marginally higher than ... Read more

  • Mechanical shear in membrane bioreactors

    Shear in membrane processes In membrane separation systems, it is probably shear which is the most significant parameter for driving the membrane process. OK, pressure is obviously important for forcing the water through the membrane ... Read more

  • Arla milk powder factory: membrane bioreactor plant for treating dairy wastewater

    In 2012, the Arla milk powder factory in Vimmerby, Sweden planned to expand operations. The increased production process generated larger wastewater volumes which the receiving municipal treatment plant was unable to process because it had already reached its capacity limit. ... Read more

  • Improving MBR flux: Ultrafiltration with a twist

    In autumn 2015, after two years of research and development, Pentair brought to market its new ‘Helix’ product. An enhancement to X-Flow tubular membrane technology, Helix features a helically-winding ridge on the inside of the membrane which is designed to tackle cake build-up and enhance flux. The technology has so far been tested on both industrial effluents and municipal wastewater, and at both pilot-scale and full-scale plants, as well as in crossflow anaerobic, ... Read more

  • Foaming in MBRs: measurement and evaluation

    Foaming of conventional activated sludge (CAS) is very common. It may happen during start-up due to the presence of surfactants, with insufficient biomass to degrade them during the early stages. However, this is normally a short-term issue. These foams (from surfactant foaming) are mostly white and can be countered with anti-foamants until there are sufficient biomass developed to degrade them. However, foam formation can occur during normal operation when the activated sludge is fully developed. In such cases a stable brown foam forms ... Read more

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